The Horn of Africa has been home to Somalis since ancient times. 13th-17th centuries – Ajuran Sultanate dominates much of the Horn of Africa before collapsing into rival regional sultanates.1527 Muslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, uses firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
c1800 Many Bantu people from Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania were taken from their homes and sold as slaves in Somalia.
1875 – Egypt occupies towns on Somali coast and parts of the interior.
1860s – France acquires foothold on the Somali coast, later to become Djibouti.
1887 – Britain proclaims protectorate over Somaliland.
1888 – Anglo-French agreement defines boundary between Somali possessions of the two countries.
1889 – Italy sets up a protectorate in central Somalia, later consolidated with territory in the south ceded by the sultan of Zanzibar.