La Wadaag
Promoting entrepreneurship in post-conflict Somalia
Promoting entrepreneurship in post-conflict Somalia

2000 August – Clan leaders and senior figures meeting in Djibouti elect Abdulkassim Salat
Hassan president of Somalia.
2000 October – Hassan and his newly-appointed prime minister, Ali Khalif Gelayadh, arrive in
Mogadishu to heroes’ welcomes. Gelayadh announces his government, the first in the country
since 1991.
2001 April – Somali warlords, backed by Ethiopia, decline to support transitional
administration.
2004 August – In 14th attempt since 1991 to restore central government, a new transitional
parliament inaugurated at ceremony in Kenya. In October the body elects Abdullahi Yusuf as
president.
2004 December – Tsunami off Indonesia displaces 10,000s on Somali coast.
2005 February-June – Somali government begins returning home from exile in Kenya, but
there are bitter divisions over where in Somalia the new parliament should sit.
2005 November – Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi survives an assassination attempt in
Mogadishu.
Islamist advance
2006 February – Transitional parliament meets in central town of Baidoa for the first time since
it was formed in 2004.
2006 March-May – Scores of people are killed and hundreds are injured during fierce fighting
between rival militias in Mogadishu. Worst violence in almost decade.
2006 June-July – Militias loyal to the Union of Islamic Courts take Mogadishu and other parts
of south after defeating clan warlords.
Ethiopian troops enter Somalia.
2006 July-August – Mogadishu’s air and seaports are re-opened for the first time since 1995.
2006 September – Transitional government and Islamic Courts begin peace talks in Khartoum.
Somalia’s first known suicide bombing targets President Yusuf outside parliament in Baidoa.
Islamists retreat
2006 December – Ethiopian and transitional government put Islamists to flight, capturing
Mogadishu.
2007 January – Islamists abandon their last stronghold, the southern port of Kismayo.
President Abdullahi Yusuf enters Mogadishu for the first time since taking office in 2004.
Air strikes in south against al-Qaeda figures are first direct US military intervention in Somalia
since 1993.
2007 March – African Union troops land in Mogadishu amid pitched battles between Islamist
insurgents and government forces backed by Ethiopian troops, after UN Security Council
authorised six-month peacekeeping mission.
Piracy concerns
2008 May – The UN Security Council allows countries to send warships to Somalia’s territorial
waters to tackle pirates.
2009 January – Ethiopia completes withdrawal of troops, announced the previous year, and
Al-Shabab capture Baidoa, formerly a key government stronghold.
Meeting in Djibouti, parliament elects moderate Islamist Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed
president, extends transitional government’s mandate for another two years.
Al-Shabab highpoint
2009 May – Islamist insurgents launch onslaught on Mogadishu and advance in the south.
2009 October – Al-Shabab recaptures the southern port of Kismayo after defeating the rival
Hizbul-Islam militia.
2010-12 – Famine kills almost 260,000, the UN says.
2010 January – UN World Food Programme withdraws from Al-Shabab areas of southern
Somalia after threats to lives of its staff.
2010 February – Al-Shabab formally declares alliance with al-Qaeda, begins to concentrate
troops for a major offensive to capture the capital.
2011 January – Pirate attacks on ships worldwide hit seven-year high in 2010, with Somali
pirates accounting for 49 of 52 ships seized.
2011 July – UN formally declares famine in three regions of Somalia. Al-Shabab partially lifts
ban on foreign aid agencies in south, and UN airlifts its first aid consignment in five years to
Mogadishu.
Al-Shabab pulls out of Mogadishu in what it calls “tactical move”.
Kenyan intervention
2011 October – Kenyan troops enter Somalia to attack rebels they accuse of being behind
several kidnappings of foreigners on Kenyan soil.
American military begins flying drone aircraft from a base in Ethiopia, Ethiopian troops return
to central town of Guriel.
2012 February-May – Al-Shabab loses key towsn of Baidoa and Afgoye to Kenyan, African
Union and Somali government forces.
New parliament, president
2012 August – Somalia’s first formal parliament in more than 20 years is sworn in at
Mogadishu airport, ending eight-year transitional period. Pro-government forces capture the
port of Merca south of Mogadishu from Al-Shabab.
2012 September – MPs in Mogadishu elect academic and civic activist Hassan Sheikh
Mohamud president over the incumbent Sharif Sheikh Ahmed. First presidential election in
Somalia since 1967.
2012 October – African Union and government forces recapture Kismayo, the last major city
held by Al-Shabab and the country’s second-largest port, and the town of Wanla Weyn
northwest of Mogadishu.
2013 January – US recognises Somalia’s government for the first time since 1991.
2013 June – Veteran Al-Shabab leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys is taken into custody by
government troops after he is ousted by more extreme Al-Shabab figure Ahmed Abdi
Godane.
Spike in violence with various attacks by Al-Shabab, including on presidential palace and UN
compound in Mogadishu.
2013 September – International donors promise 2.4 billion dollars in reconstruction aid in
three-year ”New Deal”.
Shabab attacks Kenya
2013 September – Al-Shabab seize shopping centre and kill 60 people in Kenyan capital
Nairobi, saying it is retaliation for Kenya’s military involvement in Somalia.
2014 May – Al-Shabab says it carried out a bomb attack on a restaurant in Djibouti, saying the
country is used as a launch pad to strike Muslims.
2014 June – Al-Shabab claims two attacks on the Kenyan coast which kill more than 60,
saying operations against Kenya would continue.
2014 September – Al-Shabab leader Ahmed Abdi Godane killed in US drone strike.
Government offers 2 million dollar bounty for his successor, Ahmad Omar.
2014 November – Government launches country’s first postal service in more than two
decades. Mogadishu’s first ever cash withdrawal machine installed in a hotel.
2014 November-December – Al Shabab carry out mass killings in north-east Kenya, including
on a bus and a camp of quarry workers.
2015 April – Al-Shabab claim responsibility for killing 148 people, mainly Christian students, at
Garissa University College in northern Kenya.Kenya carries out air raids on Al-Shabab bases
in Somalia in retaliation.
2015 May – US Secretary of State John Kerry pays brief visit to Mogadishu, the first
officeholder to do so, a few weeks after Al-Shabab raid government quarter of the city and kill
17 people.
2016 February – African Union leaders agree on need for more funding and support for their
military presence in Somalia after weeks of increased Al-Shabab attacks on public spaces
and pro-government troops. Government and African Union troops recapture southern port of
Merca that Al-Shabab briefly seized.
2016 November – Leaders of two Somali regions, Puntland and Galmudug, agree to respect a
ceasefire in the disputed city of Galkayo. Fighting in the city reportedly displaced 90,000.
2017 February – Parliament elects former prime minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed,
known as Farmajo, as president. Al-Shabab threatens to target anyone collaborating with him.
2017 March – Pirates seize tanker off coast of Puntland in the first hijacking of a large vessel
in the region since 2012.
2017 May – President Mohamed at London conference calls for lifting of arms embargo to
help defeat al-Shabab. UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres says conditions are now in
place in Somalia for it to become a success story.

2000 Jan 2 Shuab Mohamed Hussein, a CARE engineer, was killed during an ambush north of Mogadishu.
(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A12)

2000 Apr 19, Over 110 people died over the last 2 days from an outbreak of cholera. 70 dead were in the Ufatest commune and 40 in the village of Bulo Addey.

2000 Apr 25, In southwestern Somalia nearly 400 people in famine-ridden villages were reported dead from cholera over the last 2 weeks.

2000 May 2, Djibouti Pres. Ismael Omar Guelleh set up talks in Arta to establish a government for Somalia.

2000 May 20, It was reported that three weeks of excessive rainfall had submerged central Somalia.
(SFC, 5/20/00, p.D8)

2000 Jul, Thousands of Somalis took to the streets of Mogadishu in support of a peace conference in Djibouti.
(SFC, 8/2/00, p.A12)

2000 Aug 13, Over 2,000 Somali leaders gathered in Djibouti to form a central government with a new 225-member parliament. Somalia swore in legislators for its first central government after almost a decade of internecine warfare.
(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A1)(AP, 8/13/01)

2000 Aug 26, Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, a former interior minister, won the presidential elections.
(SFEC, 8/27/00, p.C12)

2000 Sep 6, Clan fighting left at least 25 people dead and 18 injured in villages north of Mogadishu.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A1)

2000 Sep 18, Somali gunmen freed 2 European aid workers.
(SFC, 9/19/00, p.A10)

2000 Oct 14, Pres. Abdiqasim Salad Hassan returned from Djibouti.
(SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)

2000 Nov 17, Gunmen killed 7 people in an attack of a convoy escorting Ahmed Dualeh Ghellel, a prominent businessman and new legislator. This was the 2nd attack in a week against a new member of parliament.
(SFC, 11/18/00, p.C16)

2000 In Somalia Islamists formed the Union of Islamic Courts, a national federation of sharia jurists. It was overthrown in 2006 with foreign help.
(Econ, 10/15/11, p.18)

2001 Jan 6, In Somalia Rahanwein Resistance Army gunmen attacked government forces escorting officials and at least 9 people were killed near Teiglow village.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.D2)

2001 Mar 27, Militiamen attacked a relief convoy and 14 Somalis were killed. 5 kidnapped aid workers were freed the next day, but 4 remained hostage. 2 Britons were released April 4.
(SFC, 3/28/01, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/29/01, p.A1)(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A11)

2001 May 12, Aidid forces gained control of the seaport at Mogadishu in fighting with the Suleiman clan militia. 40 people were left dead including 21 civilians.
(SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A13)

2001 cMay 18, The captain and crew of a cargo ship from Bosaso forced overboard some 150 passengers after the vessel developed engine trouble. At least 86 people drowned. Police arrested the captain on June 21.
(SFC, 6/22/01, p.A16)

2001 May 19, In Somalia luggage in a bus exploded near Halgan and 26 passengers were killed. Gunpowder in a suitcase was placed near the engine.
(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.A16)

2001 cJul 1, The fledgling government staged a show of force in Mogadishu with some 10,000 police and troops.
(WSJ, 7/2/01, p.A1)

2001 Jul 12, Fighting broke out between rival subgroups of the Abgal clan in the Suq-Fad’ad market of Mogadishu and at least 14 people were killed.
(SFC, 7/14/01, p.A11)

2001 Oct 28, In Somalia PM Ali Khalif Galaydh lost a no-confidence vote after a tenure of 13 months. Pres. Abdiqasim Salad Hassan prepared to nominate a new PM.
(SFC, 10/29/01, p.A9)

2001 Nov 25, Ethiopia sent troops into the northeastern Somali region of Puntland to help Col. Abdullahi Yussuf (Yusuf) regain power. Yussuf was overthrown Aug 26 after his 3-year term ended. On Nov 21 Yussuf launched an attack on Garoweh, the capital of Puntland and said it was to crush Islamic terrorists.
(SFC, 11/26/01, p.A11)(WSJ, 11/28/01, p.A10)

2001 Warlord Hussein Mohammed Aidid advised Pres. Bush that Al Barakaat, a money transfer and telecom company, had ties to terrorists and that there were terrorists in Somalia sympathetic to Osama bin Laden.
(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A7)

2002 Jan 3, The US announced increased military operations in Somalia and prepared to send Marines there. It was suspected that Al Qaeda fighters might attempt fleeing to Somalia.
(SFC, 1/4/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A14)

2002 Apr 30, A fire destroyed half of the Bakara market in Mogadishu. At least 7 people were killed in attempts to stop looters.
(SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)

2002 May 24, In Mogadishu hundreds of gunmen, loyal to Mohamed Dhereh and opposed to the transitional government, attacked the home of Interior Minister Dahir Dayah and killed at least 8 people.
(SFC, 5/25/02, p.A13)

2002 Jun 27, In central Somalia rival militias fought a fierce battle over the deaths of fellow clansmen, leaving 23 people dead and 40 wounded just one day after a peace deal was reached.
(AP, 6/27/02)

2002 Jun 29, Somalia’s transitional government formally called for the U.N. Security Council to send an armed force to the Horn of Africa nation.
(AP, 6/29/02)

2002 Jul 5, In Somalia a mutiny against a prominent faction leader entered a second day, with street fighting in the city of Baidoa leaving eight militiamen dead and injuring 25 others, including civilians.
(AP, 7/5/02)

2002 Sep 5, In Somalia militiamen tied white flags to their weapons as an informal cease-fire halted two days of fierce fighting in a capital area that has left more than 25 people dead and 50 wounded.
(AP, 9/5/02)

2002 Oct 4, In central Somalia heavy fighting between the Sa’ad subclan and the Majerten clan killed at least 10 people and injured 25 others.
(AP, 10/5/02)

2002 Oct 13, In Somalia a boat that had carried 120 Somalis and Ethiopians from the village of Marear more than two weeks ago, landed with 50 survivors. The engine failed, leaving them drifting in the Gulf of Aden. At least 70 people who were headed to Persian Gulf states in search of jobs died.
(AP, 10/14/02)

2002 Oct 24, In Kenya would-be carjackers shot and killed Esterlin Abdi Arush (45), a Somali human rights activist, at the gate of the house where she was staying in Nairobi.
(AP, 10/25/02)

2002 Oct 29, In southwestern Somalia hundreds of rival militiamen armed with heavy weapons fought for control of a strategic border town, leaving 25 dead and 37 wounded.
(AP, 10/29/02)

2002 Dec 24, In Somalia 3 unidentified gunmen opened fire on a school minibus in Mogadishu, killing four students and wounding 10 others.
(AP, 12/24/02)

2003 Jan 4, A boat from Somalia to Yemen developed engine trouble and capsized and at least 80 people were feared dead.
(AP, 1/16/03)

2003 May 20, The first of more than 12,000 Somali Bantus awaiting resettlement set out for the US, leaving at long last the refugee camps where most have lived for a decade.
(AP, 5/20/03)

2003 Jul 5, Delegates at a Somali peace conference agreed to create a federal government.
(AP, 7/6/03)

2003 Jul 9, In northwestern Somalia 3 days of fighting among hundreds of gunmen from rival clan-based factions killed more than 40 people and wounded 90.
(AP, 7/10/03)

2003 Sep 15, Over 360 Somali delegates in Kenya adopted a transitional charter that outlines a future government for the troubled African nation.
(AP, 9/16/03)

2003 Oct 5, In Somalia Annalena Tonelli (60), an Italian aid worker who dedicated 33 years of her life to helping Somalis, was shot and killed outside the hospital she founded to treat tuberculosis patients.

2003 Dec 16, In central Somalia rival militias battled over barren desert lands in fighting that killed at least 31 people and wounded 50 others.

2004 August – In 14th attempt since 1991 to restore central government, a new transitional parliament inaugurated at ceremony in Kenya. In October the body elects Abdullahi Yusuf as president.
2004 December – Tsunami off Indonesia displaces 10,000s on Somali coast.

2005 February-June – Somali government begins returning home from exile in Kenya, but there are bitter divisions over where in Somalia the new parliament should sit.
2005 November – Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi survives an assassination attempt in Mogadishu.

2004 Jan 29, Somalia’s feuding leaders signed an agreement to form a new government based along clan lines, the first deal of its kind to include all armed groups that have torn the country apart for the last 13 years.
(AP, 1/29/04)

2004 Mar 30, A boat carrying 107 people sank during the crossing from Somalia to Yemen and only four other people, including two crew members, were rescued.
(AP, 3/30/04)

2004 Mar, Somalia’s 1st Coca-Cola bottling plant opened in Mogadishu.
(Econ, 4/3/04, p.50)

2004 Apr, Pres. Kibaki’s government announced that Kenya would no longer recognize Somali passports.
(Econ, 6/12/04, p.46)

2004 Oct 10, Members of Somalia’s transitional parliament elected Col. Abdullahi Yusuf (70) as interim president.

2004 Dec 11, Somalia’s parliament passed a motion of no-confidence against the country’s new prime minister and his Cabinet, effectively sacking the government. Some 153 members of the 275-member transitional parliament voted against Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Gedi, accusing him of failing to respect power-sharing arrangements agreed to by warlords and the country’s main clans.

2005 Jan 22, Somalia’s government vowed to bring to justice militiamen who exhumed hundreds of skeletons from an Italian colonial-era cemetery and dumped them near Mogadishu’s airport.
(Reuters, 1/22/05)

2005 Feb 9, In Somalia BBC journalist Kate Peyton was shot to death outside a Mogadishu hotel where she had interviewed some members of the interim parliament.
(SFC, 2/19/05, p.A14)

2005 May 3, An explosion erupted as Somalia’s provisional prime minister was starting a speech, killing at least seven people and causing an undetermined number of injuries at a government rally in Mogadishu’s soccer stadium.
(AP, 5/3/05)

2005 May 14, Warlords began withdrawing thousands of militia fighters from the Somali capital in a bid to restore order after more than 15 years of anarchy and civil war.
(AP, 5/15/05)

2005 June 27, In Somalia gunman hijacked the MV Semlow, a ship carrying food aid, and held the vessel for 100 days before it was released Oct. 4.
(AP, 10/12/05)

2005 Jul 4, The UN’s World Food Program (WFP) said it has suspended aid shipments to lawless Somalia after gunmen hijacked a vessel it chartered and demanded a $500,000 ransom.
(AP, 7/4/05)

2005 Aug 13, Rival militias in arid southwestern Somalia battled for control over a village with pastures and wells. Twelve combatants died, and hundreds of residents fled.
(AP, 8/13/05)

2005 Aug 31, Some 200 Somalis and Ethiopians left Somalia’s semiautonomous Puntland region in two boats. Smugglers making the illegal crossing from Somalia to Yemen forced passengers into the Red Sea at gunpoint 10 miles from the Yemeni coastline, leaving at least 57 dead and about 100 missing.
(AP, 9/5/05)

2005 Sep 23, Police in the breakaway republic of Somaliland raided houses in the capital, Hargeisa, where al-Qaida militants were believed holed up and captured four suspects after a shootout. A fifth suspect was arrested 20 miles away. Pres. Dahir Riyale Kahnin said the men were mostly locals trained at a camp outside Mogadishu, Somalia.
(AP, 9/23/05)(Econ, 10/1/05, p.43)

2005 Oct 12, In Somalia 6 armed men hijacked the MV Miltzow, a ship carrying food aid, as it was unloading at the port of Merka, marking the second such incident in recent months.
(AP, 10/12/05)

2005 Oct 14, Somalia’s PM Ali Mohamed Gedi called on neighboring countries to send warships to patrol his nation’s waters after pirates seized a 3rd cargo vessel delivering food aid.
(AP, 10/14/05)

2005 Oct 17, Abdi Hassan Awale, who once served as Somalia’s interior minister, was arrested on suspicion of war crimes while attending a conference in Sweden. He is suspected of being a militia leader during the Oct 3, 1993, “Black Hawk Down” battle that left 18 Americans dead.
(AP, 10/17/05)

2005 Nov 5, The cruise ship MV Seaborn Spirit, carrying at least 600 tourists from Europe, narrowly escaped seizure by gunmen off the pirate-infested Somali coast when it sped off to the high seas amid a trail of gunfire. At least 23 hijackings and attempted seizures have been recorded off the Somalia coastline since mid-March, according to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB), which has warned ships to stay as far away from the coast as possible and keep radio communication to the minimal.
(AFP, 11/5/05)

2005 Nov 6, Gunmen in Mogadishu threw grenades and a land mine exploded near the convoy carrying Somalia’s PM Ali Mohamed Gedi, but the leader escaped unharmed. At least two people were killed and 12 wounded in the attack.
(AP, 11/6/05)

2005 Nov 27, Pirates freed a Ukrainian cargo ship seized nearly 40 days ago off the coast of Somalia. The Panahia and its 22 crew members were seized Oct 18. It was not immediately clear if the $700,000 ransom demanded by the pirates had been paid.
(AP, 11/27/05)

2005 Dec 25, In Somalia warlords and civilians installed a council to govern Mogadishu, an action that further fragments the nation but could bring the capital under the control of a single group after 14 years of anarchy.
(AP, 12/25/05)

2005 Dec 29, Drought was reported to have triggered extreme food shortages in the East African countries of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia, putting millions of people at risk of famine as the lean dry season approaches.
(AP, 12/30/05)

2005 In Somalia some three dozen Somalis formed a club of Islamists, soon dubbing themselves Shabab (Arabic for youth).
(Econ, 6/8/13, p.87)
2005 According to the International Maritime Bureau the number of overall reported at-sea hijackings by pirates off the Somali coast was 35, compared with two in 2004.
(AP, 4/7/07)

2006 Jan 1, East African leaders said that millions of people in the region faced hunger because poor rains had affected vital crops and pasture. Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania faced acute food shortages.
(AP, 1/1/06)

2006 Jan 21, US Navy vessels sent warning shots and captured the crew of a suspected pirate ship in the Indian Ocean off Somalia’s coast. The US Navy boarded the pirate ship and detained 26 men for questioning. Sailors aboard the dhow told Navy investigators that pirates hijacked the vessel six days ago near Mogadishu and thereafter used it to stage pirate attacks on merchant ships.
(AP, 1/23/06)

2006 Feb, In Somalia a warlord alliance, the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT), was created with US support in a bid to curb the growing influence of the Islamic courts, hunt down the extremists they are accused of sheltering and disrupt feared plans for new terrorist attacks.
(AP, 6/15/06)

2006 Mar 18, Two US Navy warships exchanged gunfire with suspected pirates off the coast of Somalia, and one suspect was killed and five others were wounded.
(AP, 3/18/06)

2006 Mar 21, The UN appealed for nearly $327 million in aid to help starving people in southern Somalia, which is suffering its worst drought in a decade.
(AP, 3/21/06)

2006 Mar 24, In Mogadishu, Somalia, 13 people were killed as fighting continued between Islamic militia fighters and forces opposed to fundamentalist clerics. 3 days of clashes left at least 73 people dead.
(SFC, 3/25/06, p.A3)

2006 Mar 25, In Somalia hundreds of heavily armed Islamic militiamen launched an offensive to try to capture a key port and airstrip on the northeastern outskirts of Mogadishu.
(AP, 3/25/06)

2006 Mar 29, Some 20 Filipino seamen were seized after their oil tanker, the United Arab Emirates-registered MT LIN1, offloaded its cargo at a southern Somali port. The men were released in July 15 following negotiations.
(AP, 7/16/06)

2006 Apr 4, The South Korean ship 628 Dongwon was seized by eight armed assailants, who approached in two speed boats firing guns off the coast of Somalia. 25 crew members were reported safe and officials sought their release. The sailors were released July 30 after more than $800,000 in ransom was paid.
(AP, 4/5/06)(AP, 7/30/06)

2006 Apr 5, Militants who captured the South Korean fishing vessel off the coast of Somalia denied they were pirates and said they were defending their waters from illegal fishing.
(AP, 4/5/06)

2006 Apr 17, Somalia granted the US Navy permission to patrol coastal waters to combat piracy.
(WSJ, 4/18/06, p.A1)

2006 Apr, Somalia’s transitional government named Mohamud Hassan Ali (52), a resident of Minnesota since 2000, as mayor of Mogadishu. His uncle had served as mayor of Mogadishu from 1959-1963.
(SSFC, 6/11/06, p.A22)

2006 May 7, Officials said pirates who hijacked a cargo ship off the coast of Somalia and killed one of its crew members have released the vessel after holding it for a week.
(AP, 5/7/06)

2006 May 9, Somalian factions said they have agreed to a truce following clashes between Islamic fighters and a warlord alliance that have killed about 60 people.
(WSJ, 5/10/06, p.A1)

2006 May 10, In Somalia a brief truce collapsed in Mogadishu and renewed fighting pushed the death toll to almost 100 people over 4 days of fighting.
(WSJ, 5/11/06, p.A1)

2006 May 11, In Somalia fighters loyal to secular warlords and Islamic extremists fired artillery and mortars at each other Mogadishu as hundreds of families fled violence that has killed at least 122 people over five days.
(AP, 5/11/06)

2006 May 13, In Somalia Islamic militia and secular fighters pounded each other with heavy artillery and mortar fire as the death toll rose to 142 in seven days of fighting for control of a neighborhood north of the Mogadishu.
(AP, 5/13/06)

2006 May 16, In Somalia fighting between Islamic militias and rival secular fighters killed two people on the outskirts of Mogadishu, despite a weekend cease-fire ending days of bloodshed in the capital.

2006 June-July – Militias loyal to the Union of Islamic Courts take Mogadishu and other parts of south after defeating clan warlords.
Ethiopian troops enter Somalia.

2006 July-August – Mogadishu’s air and seaports are re-opened for the first time since 1995.
2006 September – Transitional government and Islamic Courts begin peace talks in Khartoum.
Somalia’s first known suicide bombing targets President Yusuf outside parliament in Baidoa.

2006 May 17, A secular alliance that is battling fundamentalist Islamic militias in Somalia charged that its rivals are bolstered by fighters from the Middle East, Pakistan and elsewhere, and said it has the bodies to prove it. The interim government said the US was supporting secular warlords fighting Islamic groups for control of Mogadishu.
(AP, 5/17/06)(SFC, 5/18/06, p.A11)

2006 May 25, In Somalia renewed fighting between Islamic militias and secular warlords killed at least 38 people in Mogadishu and sent thousands of frightened civilians running from their homes.
(AP, 5/25/06)

2006 May 27, In Mogadishu, Somalia, Islamic militiamen and rival secular fighters traded machine-gun, rocket and mortar fire, killing at least eight and wounding a dozen as residents fled on foot or in hired minivans.
(AP, 5/27/06)

2006 May 31, In Somalia Islamic militias and secular warlords resumed fighting for control of Mogadishu, killing at least 13 people and wounding 11 after a five-day lull.
(AP, 5/31/06)

2006 Jun 3, In Somalia 5 people were killed in fighting between Islamic militiamen and their secular rivals on the outskirts of Mogadishu.
(AP, 6/3/06)

2006 Jun 5, An Islamic militia said it has seized Somalia’s capital after weeks of bloody fighting and 15 years of anarchy in this Horn of Africa nation, raising fears that the nation could fall under the sway of al-Qaida. Some 350 fighters and civilians had been killed over the past month with at least 2,000 wounded.
(AP, 6/5/06)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.44)

2006 Jun 7, In Somalia Islamist leaders in control of Mogadishu agreed to talks with the country’s transitional government. A counter-offensive by rival warlords, supported by the US, still posed a threat.
(SFC, 6/8/06, p.A18)

2006 Jun 13, Seven east African nations imposed travel bans on Somali warlords, who lost bloody battles with Islamist fighters over Mogadishu, and froze their assets in effort to push them into peace talks.
(AP, 6/13/06)

2006 Jun 14, Somali lawmakers in Baidoa approved a peacekeeping mission for Somalia. Fighters determined to install Islamic rule across Somalia won a strategic town, entering Jowhar after their secular rivals fled their last stronghold in the south.
(AP, 6/14/06)

2006 Jun 16, In Somalia some 10,000 opponents of an international peacekeeping mission demonstrated in Mogadishu, which is controlled by an Islamic militia accused by the US of harboring wanted al-Qaida members.
(AP, 6/16/06)

2006 Jun 17, The leader of Somalia’s increasingly powerful Islamic militia accused Ethiopian troops of crossing into the country, a charge Ethiopia denied.
(AP, 6/17/06)

2006 Jun 22, Somalia’s largely powerless government and the Islamic fighters who control the country’s capital agreed to stop military action and recognize each other.
(AP, 6/22/06)

2006 Jun 23, In Somalia Martin Adler, a Swedish television cameraman, was fatally shot by an unidentified gunman during a demonstration in Mogadishu.
(AP, 6/23/06)(www.nppa.org/news_and_events/news/2006/06/adler.html)

2006 Jun 24, In Somalia Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, a fundamentalist Muslim, who the US suspects of collaborating with al-Qaida terrorists, was named as the new leader of an Islamic militia that has seized control of Mogadishu. Aweys was aided by fighters loosely linked to the Shabab, the armed wing of Islamic Courts Union.
(AP, 6/24/06)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.44)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.58)

2006 Jun 27, In Mogadishu, Somalia, members of an Islamic militia that controls most of southern Somalia battled for a clan-held checkpoint, killing five people before declaring victory.
(AP, 6/27/06)

2006 Jun 29, The hard-line Muslim leaders who have seized control of much of southern Somalia claimed authority throughout the country in yet another blow to the largely powerless but internationally recognized interim government.
(AP, 6/29/06)

2006 Jun 30, Three Darfur rebel groups, that have refused to sign up to an African Union-mediated peace deal for the troubled western Sudanese region, formed a new alliance to fight Khartoum. Officials from the groups created the National Redemption Front (NRF) after talks in the Eritrean capital and reaffirmed their opposition to the Abuja peace agreement.
(AFP, 6/30/06)

2006 Jul 1, About 100 Ethiopian troops entered the Somali border town of Beled-Hawo in eight military vehicles, the latest sign that Ethiopia might try to bolster this country’s weak interim government as an Islamic militia gains increasing power.
(AP, 7/1/06)

2006 Jul 2, Africa’s leaders meeting in Gambia agreed to send troops to Somalia to support regional efforts at calming the chaotic east African state.
(Reuters, 7/2/06)

2006 Jul 4, Radical Islamic militia fighters in Somalia shot and killed two people who were watching a World Cup soccer broadcast. The Islamic group that controls Somalia’s capital soon arrested two of its own militiamen for killing two people who were watching the soccer match.
(AP, 7/5/06)(AP, 7/6/06)

2006 Jul 6, Members of the radical Islamic group that controls Somalia’s capital met African, Arab and European officials and repeated their opposition to the deployment of peacekeepers to stabilize the lawless country.
(AP, 7/6/06)

2006 Jul 8, The Islamic militiamen controlling the Somali capital broke up a wedding celebration because a band, the Mogadishu Stars, was playing and women and men were socializing together. Band members were flogged with electric cables.
(AP, 7/8/06)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.47)

2006 Jul 9, In Somalia 20 people were killed in bloody fighting as Islamic fighters fought supporters of Abdi Awale Qaybdiid, who refused to disarm.
(AP, 7/10/06)

2006 Jul 10, Somalia’s Islamic militia battled a pocket of resistance, pounding Mogadishu with machine-gun fire and rocket-propelled grenades and at least 7 people were killed.
(AP, 7/10/06)

2006 Jul 11, Hundreds of fighters who were battling Somalia’s Islamic militia in Mogadishu surrendered after a surge of violence that killed more than 70 people and wounded 150.
(AP, 7/11/06)

2006 Jul 14, Somalia’s nearly powerless interim government said it would boycott weekend peace talks with the Islamic militia that has seized control of nearly all the nation’s south, accusing the group of civilian massacres and ties to foreign terrorists.
(AP, 7/14/06)

2006 Jul 18, In Somalia Islamic militiamen who rule Mogadishu arrested about 60 people for watching videos in several overnight raids.
(AP, 7/19/06)

2006 Jul 20, Residents of central Somalia said that hundreds of Ethiopian troops were patrolling the town of Baidoa in armored vehicles, less than a day after Islamic militants moved near the base of the weak, UN-backed government.
(AP, 7/20/06)

2006 Jul 21, An Islamic militia leader called for a holy war against Ethiopian troops protecting Somalia’s weak UN-backed government.
(AP, 7/21/06)

2006 Jul 22, Ethiopian troops sent to bolster Somalia’s weak government against a powerful Islamic militia moved into a second Somali town and seized a strategic airport.
(AP, 7/22/06)

2006 Jul 23, In Somalia a local rights group said gunmen have killed 682 civilians, including a foreign journalist, in executions over the past year.
(AP, 7/23/06)

2006 Jul 26, Somalia’s virtually powerless government said a cargo plane landed at the capital’s airport and was carrying weapons for Islamic militants who have seized control of much of southern Somalia. A spokesman for the country’s official government, based 150 miles northwest of Mogadishu, said the plane was carrying land mines, bombs and long-range guns from Eritrea for a militia loyal to the Supreme Islamic Courts Council.
(AP, 7/26/06)

2006 Jul 27, At least 20 members of Somalia’s parliament resigned, accusing the country’s virtually powerless government of failing to bring peace. The parliament is supposed to have 275 member but 16 members have defected to the Islamic militia and other seats remain unfilled after members’ deaths.
(AP, 7/27/06)

2006 Jul 28, Hundreds of people rioted near the headquarters of Somalia’s virtually powerless government after a Cabinet minister was fatally shot outside a mosque.
(AP, 7/28/06)

2006 Jul 29, Somalia’s PM Mohammed Ali Gedi accused Egypt, Libya and Iran of providing weapons for Islamic militants who have seized control of much of this country’s south.
(AP, 7/29/06)

2006 Jul 30, The first commercial flight in a decade departed Mogadishu’s newly reopened international airport, demonstrating how Islamic militants have pacified the once-anarchic capital and much of southern Somalia.
(AP, 7/30/06)

2006 Jul 31, In Somalia 275 militiamen with 50 pickup trucks mounted with anti-aircraft guns were sent to central Somalia to break up the bases of Somali pirates who have been kidnapping sailors.
(AP, 8/1/06)

2006 Aug 2, Somali leaders struggled to regroup after a week in which 29 ministers quit the government, with the defectors urging the virtually powerless administration to reconcile with Islamic militants who have seized the capital.
(AP, 8/2/06)

2006 Aug 6, A government spokesman said Somalia’s top interim leaders have agreed to end a rift threatening the fragile administration after crisis talks led by Seyoum Mesfin, Ethiopia’s foreign affairs minister.
(Reuters, 8/6/06)

2006 Aug 16, In Mogadishu, Somalia, Islamic leaders gave seven men 40 lashes each for using or selling marijuana, meting out the punishment in public in a dramatic example of the region’s new fundamentalist rule.
(AP, 8/16/06)

2006 Aug 21, Somalia’s embattled PM Ali Mohamed Gedi named a new Cabinet, two weeks after the old one was dissolved amid a rift within the UN-backed transitional government over how to respond to the growing influence of Islamic militants.
(AP, 8/21/06)

2006 Aug 22, Ethiopian troops reportedly arrived in the central Somali town of Galkayo. The move may stoke tensions with the Islamic militiamen who control most of southern Somalia. They were seen inside the town in 13 vehicles.
(AP, 8/22/06)

2006 Aug 23, Somalia’s seaport in Mogadishu reopened for the first time in 11 years, the latest sign that the city’s Islamic fundamentalist rulers are trying to restore confidence after more than a decade of anarchy.
(AP, 8/23/06)

2006 Sep 4, Somalia’s weak government and an Islamic militia that controls much of the south signed an agreement to eventually form a unified national army.
(AP, 9/4/06)

2006 Sep 5, In Somalia thousands of people massed in Mogadishu vowing to fight any foreign peacekeepers sent to the embattled nation, while a coalition of East African nations approved an ambitious plan to deploy troops in Somalia by early next month.
(AP, 9/5/06)

2006 Sep 10, Islamic militants controlling much of southern Somalia shut down a radio station for playing love songs and other music, the latest step to impose strict religious rule which has sparked fears of an emerging, Taliban-style regime. Islamic militants, who closed down a Somali radio station, allowed it back on the air so long as it does not play music or love songs.
(AP, 9/10/06)(AP, 9/11/06)

2006 Sep 17, Sister Leonella Sgorbati, an Italian nun, was shot dead at a hospital in Mogadishu by Somali gunmen, hours after a leading Muslim cleric condemned Pope Benedict XVI for his remarks on Islam and violence. The nun’s bodyguard and a hospital worker were also killed.
(AP, 9/17/06)(AP, 9/21/06)

2006 Sep 18, In Somalia a massive car bomb exploded outside the makeshift parliament building in Baidoa, killing 11 people, including the president’s brother, in an apparent assassination attempt. As Pres. Yusuf fled, a gunbattle broke out between his bodyguards and eight suspected accomplices of an apparent suicide bomber. Six were killed and two were captured.
(AP, 9/18/06)(AP, 9/19/06)

2006 Sep 24, In Somalia hundreds of Islamic militiamen in heavily armed trucks took over the southern town of Kismayo, one of the last seaports that had been outside their control.
(AP, 9/24/06)

2006 Sep 25, Somalia’s interim prime minister called on the UN to partially lift an arms embargo on his country to allow for the deployment of African peacekeepers, which he said are necessary to stop the advance of Islamic radicals. A government order banned human smuggling. Ethiopian troops arrived in Somalia to support the internationally recognized government in its faceoff with radicals. The Islamic militia in the seaport of Kismayo opened fire on thousands protesting the fundamentalists’ takeover of the southern town. Witnesses said a teenager was killed.
(AP, 9/25/06)(SFC, 9/26/06, p.A3)(AP, 10/8/06)

2006 Sep 28, Somali police investigating a car bomb assassination attempt on the president arrested three suspected members of a fundamentalist Islamic group and recovered explosives.
(AP, 9/28/06)

2006 Sep 29, Somalia’s Islamic fighters seized control of Jawill, a strategic village near the Ethiopian border, widening their grip over much of the southern part of the country. 3 pro-government militiamen and one Islamic courts fighter were killed during the gunbattle for the village.
(AP, 9/30/06)

2006 Oct 6, The UN refugee agency said the number of Somalis fleeing fighting to seek refuge in Kenya has risen dramatically and could stretch the capacity of aid organizations to critical levels.
(AP, 10/6/06)

2006 Oct 7, In Somalia dozens of people protested against an Islamic militia that has seized much of southern Somalia, a day after the group appointed a new administration in Kismayo, the country’s third largest city.
(AP, 10/7/06)

2006 Oct 8, Authorities in northeastern Somalia repatriated more than 1,000 Ethiopians whom smugglers were preparing to take across the Gulf of Aden to the promise of jobs and a better life in the Middle East.
(AP, 10/8/06)

2006 Oct 9, Somali government troops with Ethiopian help recaptured Burhakaba. The Islamic militia that has seized much southern Somalia declared a holy war against Ethiopia accusing its neighbor of deploying thousands of troops to prop up the weak UN-backed government.
(SFC, 10/10/06, p.A3)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.49)

2006 Oct 12, The UN said it has temporarily pulled international staff out of parts of Somalia controlled by Islamic radicals after receiving written threats.
(AP, 10/12/06)

2006 Oct 13, Somalia’s Islamic radicals repulsed an attack by pro-government forces to recapture Kismayo, a vital seaport. Islamic radicals carried out their second public execution in less than a month amid fears of increasing extremist violence. Mahad Osman Ugas (23) was executed by a six-man firing squad as several thousand people watched. A jury convicted him of killing a businessman while trying to steal the man’s cell phone.
(AP, 10/13/06)(AP, 10/14/06)

2006 Oct 17, Kenya reported its first case of polio in 22 years at a refugee camp near the Somali border as the United Nations appealed for urgent help to cope with a surge in refugees from Somalia.
(AFP, 10/17/06)

2006 Oct 19, Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi told parliament that he had sent military trainers to help Somalia’s struggling government, but had not deployed a fighting force.
(AP, 10/19/06)

2006 Oct 24, Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi said Ethiopia was “technically” at war with Somalia’s Islamists because they had declared jihad on his nation.
(AP, 10/24/06)

2006 Oct 29, Somalia’s Islamic group broke off peace talks with the transitional government, demanding that Ethiopian troops withdraw from the country.
(AP, 10/29/06)

2006 Oct 30, Somali Islamic leaders banned youthful Somalis from marrying without the consent of their parents, saying such unions violate Islam.
(AP, 10/31/06)

2006 Nov 5, A delegation of Somali lawmakers broke ranks with the government and traveled to the capital to hold peace talks with the country’s Islamic militia, the latest sign of cracks in the fragile administration.
(AP, 11/5/06)

2006 Nov 6, In northern Somalia Islamic fighters clashed with government militia backed by Ethiopian forces.
(SFC, 11/7/06, p.A18)

2006 Nov 12, Heavy fighting erupted in central Somalia, a day after the transitional government rejected a peace initiative with the country’s Islamic movement.
(AP, 11/12/06)

2006 Nov 15, A UN report identified 10 African and Arab countries, as well as Lebanon’s Hezbollah, as arms suppliers to the Islamic militia in Somalia.
(WSJ, 11/16/06, p.A1)

2006 Nov 17, UN aid bodies said torrential rains and floods have hit up to 1.8 million people in the Horn of Africa, driving tens of thousands from their homes and threatening to trigger epidemics. Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
(AP, 11/17/06)

2006 Nov 19, In Somalia Islamic fighters used land mines and ambushed an 80-vehicle Ethiopian military convoy headed to Baidoa killing 6 soldiers and injuring 20.
(SFC, 11/20/06, p.A3)

2006 Nov 20, Gen. Addeh Museh, the president of the semiautonomous region of Puntland, said he will rule according to Islamic law, a surprising move in a relatively stable area that has resisted the spread of Islamic militants who control most of southern Somalia.
(AP, 11/20/06)

2006 Nov 23, Somalia’s Islamic militia invited US government leaders to visit the capital, Mogadishu, the city where 18 U.S. troops on a peacekeeping mission to the East African nation were killed in 1993.
(AP, 11/24/06)

2006 Nov 29, The UN Security Council condemned a “significant increase” in the flow of weapons to and through Somalia in violation of a 1992 arms embargo and voted unanimously to keep monitoring weapons trafficking in the poor and lawless Horn of Africa nation.
(AP, 11/30/06)

2006 Nov 30, In Somalia a car blast killed 9 people near the Somali government seat of Baidoa in an attack the administration blamed on Islamists backed by al Qaeda. An attack on Ethiopian troops left 20 dead.
(AFP, 12/1/06)(WSJ, 12/1/06, p.A1)

2006 Dec 1, The US circulated a UN Security Council draft resolution that would authorize a regional force to protect Somalia’s weak government and threaten Security Council action against those who block peace efforts and attempt to overthrow it.
(AP, 12/2/06)

2006 Dec 5, Somalia’s government ruled out peace talks with the country’s Islamic movement, citing truce violations, heightening fears of an all-out war.
(AFP, 12/5/06)

2006 Dec 6, In Somalia Sheik Hussein Barre Rage, an Islamic courts official in Bulo Burto, said residents who do not pray five times a day will be beheaded, adding the edict will be implemented in three days. Hoping to head off a regional proxy war, the UN Security Council came to the aid of Somalia’s virtually powerless government, authorizing hundreds of East African troops to train and protect the interim administration in its conflict with an Islamic militia.
(AP, 12/6/06)(AP, 12/7/06)

2006 Dec 7, Islamic militants in control of most of southern Somalia warned that war will erupt over a UN decision authorizing an African force to protect the country’s virtually powerless government.
(AP, 12/7/06)

2006 Dec 8, Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed, a top Islamic official, said that militiamen are fighting Ethiopian troops in Dinsor, a southern Somalia town. He called on Somalis to defeat “the enemies who have invaded our land.”
(AP, 12/8/06)

2006 Dec 12, Somalia’s PM Ali Mohamed Gedi said thousands of Islamic militants have surrounded Baidoa, the only town the internationally recognized government controls, as a top Islamic official promised to attack within a week unless Ethiopian troops leave.
(AP, 12/12/06)

2006 Dec 15, Somalia’s president said that peace talks with the country’s Islamic movement are no longer an option because the group’s leaders have declared war on his government.
(AP, 12/15/06)
2006 Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
(AFP, 12/15/06)

2006 Dec 16, A Somali lawmaker bypassed the government and signed an agreement to end hostilities with the country’s powerful Islamic militia, a symbolic gesture that is unlikely to have any real effect. Nearly 200 troops serving Somalia’s weak Western-backed government defected to the Islamic courts movement, as both sides braced for impending war.
(AP, 12/16/06)(AP, 12/17/06)

2006 Dec 20, Heavy fighting broke out between Somalia’s government troops and rival Islamic militia.
(AP, 12/20/06)

2006 Dec 21, Fighting erupted for a 3rd straight day between Somali fighters, one day after an EU envoy got both the government and a rival Islamic movement to agree to resume peace talks.
(AP, 12/21/06)

2006 Dec 22, In Somalia Ethiopian attack helicopters and tanks headed for battle as fighting raged for a fourth day between Somalia’s Islamic militia and the country’s secular government.
(AP, 12/22/06)

2006 Dec 23, Somalia’s Islamic militants called on foreign Muslim fighters to join their holy war against Ethiopian troops after days of fighting killed hundreds of people and threatened to engulf the region.
(AP, 12/23/06)

2006 Dec 24, Ethiopia launched an attack on Somalia’s powerful Islamic movement, sending fighter jets across the border and bombarding several towns in a major escalation of the violence that threatens to engulf the Horn of Africa.
(AP, 12/24/06)

2006 Dec 25, Ethiopian fighter jets bombed Somalia’s main airport, the first direct attack on the city that serves as the headquarters of an Islamic movement attempting to wrest power from the internationally recognized government.
(AP, 12/25/06)

2006 Dec 26, Islamic fighters retreated as Somali government and Ethiopian troops advanced on three fronts in a decisive turn in the battle for control of this Horn of Africa nation. Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi said up to 1,000 of the religious movement’s fighters had been killed.
(AP, 12/26/06)(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A1)

2006 Dec 27, Ethiopian and Somali government troops drove Islamic fighters out of the last major town on the road to Mogadishu, the Islamist-held capital.
(AP, 12/27/06)
2006 Dec 27, Yemeni authorities opened fire on boats filled with refugees fleeing the fighting in Somalia and at least 17 people drowned when one of the vessels capsized.
(AP, 12/28/06)

2006 Dec 28, Somali government troops rolled into Mogadishu unopposed, the prime minister said, hours after an Islamic movement that tried to establish a government based on the Quran abandoned the capital.
(AP, 12/28/06)

2006 Dec 29, Somalia’s prime minister entered the capital, a day after an Islamic movement’s fighters retreated ahead of his Ethiopian-backed troops, and was welcomed by thousands of cheering residents of the battle-scarred city.
(AP, 12/29/06)

2006 Dec 30, Thousands of Somali and Ethiopian troops set off for a showdown with Islamic forces who have regrouped at a southern seaport since abandoning the Somali capital.
(AP, 12/30/06)

2006 Dec 31, Fighting erupted on the outskirts of the last remaining stronghold of Somalia’s militant Islamic movement, as thousands of residents streamed from the area ahead of the feared battle with Ethiopian-backed government troops.
(AP, 12/31/06)

2006 Hirsi Ali (36), a refugee from Somalia and member of the Dutch Parliament, authored “The Caged Virgin,” a look at immigration, integration, women’s rights and the place of Islam in Western countries. Hirsi Ali, who was raised a strict Muslim, now calls herself an atheist. She would like to see a Muslim Reformation of the kind that remade European Christianity in the 16th century.
(AP, 4/28/06)
2006 In the waters off East Africa unmarked fishing ships carried 23mm anti-aircraft guns and fished illegally impacting the local fishermen of Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania. Fish stocks fell as coral reefs were ripped, and numberless dolphins and turtles were getting snagged.
(Econ, 8/5/06, p.43)
2006 In the borderlands of Somalia a good quality AK-47 could be had for 3 cows, while an American M-16 fetched 5 cows.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.20)

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