When Madagascar celebrates its 60th anniversary for its independence from France, some citizens still have the scars of colonialism.
Randriamamonjy can point to the marks on his legs and back, reminders of manual labor French and Senegalese riders forced him to perform as a 20-year-old in 1947, the year the Malagasy uprising began. When he refused, he was sentenced to seven years in prison.
Others suffered worse fate. As many as 90,000 Malagasy died during the two-year uprising, which was one of the earliest uprisings in the French colonies and was brutally shut down. Madagascar would not get its independence until 1960.
Some in the country say that with the nation’s dependence on France, Madagascar is still not free.